In response to this, an industry has developed to mitigate these threats by the development and testing of a wide range of products. These are specifically designed to limit or prevent the access of vehicles to sensitive sites, areas and crowded places.
The first impact testing standard to be developed, US DoS SD-STD-02.01, was as a consequence of VBIED attacks in 1983 against a US military target in Beirut. This standard was originally published by the Bureau of Diplomatic Security and issued in 1985. It quickly became the international benchmark for impact testing standards – until the UK’s PAS 68 standard was released in 2005. References to the old US standard are still seen in specifications today (K4, K8, K12) even though this has long since been superseded by newer testing protocols on both sides of the Atlantic.
The US DoS standard was replaced in 2007 by the US ASTM F2656-07 standard (subsequently updated to ASTM F2656-18) which was similar to the PAS 68 standard (last issue PAS 68: 2013). This was itself latterly transformed into a CEN Workshop Agreement – CWA 16221:2010.
An International Workshop Agreement standard (IWA14-1:2013) was introduced in 2013 to enable the harmonisation of the US ASTM F2656, CWA 16221:2010 and UK PAS68 testing standards. The testing criteria of the latest release of ASTM F2656-18 moves towards harmonisation with IWA14-1:2013.
Regardless of which of the above testing standards you encounter in use around the world it is important to understand that impact testing to a recognised standard is designed to give confidence in a product as it has undergone actual physical testing rather than just being the result of theoretical evaluation. The key to having this confidence results from these tests being independently conducted to a specific standard by a suitably accredited testing organisation rather than just being reliant on the claims of an individual manufacturer.
The marketplace for protection measures currently includes a wide selection of powered or manually operated entry point control systems (active barriers) as well as static or fixed barrier solutions (passive barriers). Many of these measures are available as both temporary and permanent solutions and can be conventional foundation mounted, shallow foundation mounted or surface mounted. These give the end-user a wide range of possible solutions covering most eventualities.
The main categories of products that have been developed to counter hostile vehicles are fences, gates, bollards, road blockers, rising arm barriers, street furniture, pedestrian portals and longitudinal barriers. In each of these categories there are today a wide variety of tested products available of varying performance and appearance providing a huge range of options available in order to tackle potential hostile vehicle issues specific to any particular situation. Further information on each category is available in the product options section of this website.
The HVM industry as a whole continues to develop innovative solutions as it seeks to mitigate not only existing but also future developing threats linked to the use of vehicles in terrorist attacks.
The PSSA is the foremost trade body specifically representing the interests of HVM manufacturers both in the UK and from around the world. It was formed with the specific aim of promoting best practice amongst its many leading industry members, whilst helping to ensure end user confidence in its members, their products and services.
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